Brain drain and brain gain

Brain drain and brain gain both refer to consequences of migration for the host and sending societies in terms of the transfer of human capital. Brain drain involves the departure of a society’s high-skilled or well-trained individuals through emigration. Brain gain in turn refers to the phenomenon of such individuals contributing human capital to a host society, or eventually returning to their country/region of origin and bringing new skills or capital with them. These phenomena are also collectively known as ‘brain circulation’.

This topic includes literature on skilled migration, academic mobility, remittances, return intentions, transnationalism, and educational segregation.

Showing page of 227 results, sorted by

Brain drain, brain gain and brain waste

Authors A. Fihel, P. Kaczmarczyk, N. Wolfeil, ...
Year 2009
Book Title Labour mobility within the EU in the context of enlargement and the functioning of the transitional arrangements
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1 Book Chapter

Trends in Latin American Skilled Migration: "Brain Drain" or "Brain Exchange"?

Authors Adela Pellegrino
Year 2001
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 34
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2 Journal Article

Brain drain or brain gain: A revisit

Authors Donald Lien, Yan Wang
Year 2005
Journal Name JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 10
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3 Journal Article

Highly Skilled Egyptian Migrants in Austria: A Case of Brain Drain or Brain Gain?

Authors Alessia Bacchi
Year 2016
Journal Name JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT & REFUGEE STUDIES
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4 Journal Article

Highly Skilled Egyptian Migrants in Austria: A Case of Brain Drain or Brain Gain?

Authors Alessia Bacchi
Year 2016
Journal Name JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT & REFUGEE STUDIES
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5 Journal Article

A Cultural Analysis of China’s Scientific Brain Drain: the Case of Chinese Immigrant Scientists in Canadian Academia

Authors Meirong Fu
Year 2014
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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6 Journal Article

A brain gain with a brain drain

Authors O. Stark, C. Helmenstein, A. Prskawetz
Year 1977
Journal Name Economics Letters
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7 Journal Article

Conceptualizing Professional Diaspora: International Medical Graduates in Canada

Authors Elena Neiterman, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault
Year 2011
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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8 Journal Article

World Migration in Historical Perspective

Year 2015
Book Title Handbook of the Economics of International Migration
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9 Book Chapter

The Reverse and Return Transfer of Technology (RRTT): Towards a Comprehensive Model of the Migration of African Experts

Authors B. Ikubolajeh Logan
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 9
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10 Journal Article

Brain Circulation of South Korean Students in Japan and China

Authors In-Jin Yoon, Kyung-Soo Rha, Jongtae Kim, ...
Year 2013
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
Citations (WoS) 4
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11 Journal Article

Brain Circulation of South Korean Students in Japan and China

Authors In-Jin Yoon, Kyung-Soo Rha, Jongtae Kim, ...
Year 2013
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
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12 Journal Article

Regional organizations and intra-regional migration in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and prospects

Authors A Adepoju
Year 2001
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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13 Journal Article

Regional organizations and intra-regional migration in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and prospects

Authors A Adepoju
Year 2001
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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14 Journal Article

Ability drain: size, impact, and comparison with brain drain under alternative immigration policies

Authors M Schiff
Year 2017
Journal Name JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS
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15 Journal Article

Migration, Return, and Development: An Institutional Perspective

Authors Henrik Olesen
Year 2002
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 59
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16 Journal Article

Temporary versus Permanent Youth Brain Drain: Economic Implications

Authors Vladimir Balaz, Allan M. Williams, Daniel Kollar
Year 2004
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 45
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17 Journal Article

Dynamic Wage Effects of Brain Gain and Brain Drain - Analyzing Changes in the Regional Concentration of High-Skilled Workers

Year 2015
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Abstract
There is a growing amount of literature investigating the wage effects of regional human capital. Up to now research concentrates on spillover effects generated by the regional stock of skilled workers (human capital externalities). We put a special focus on wage effects caused by the interregional in-migration (brain gain) and out-migration (brain drain) of skilled workers. We argue that the effects of incoming and outgoing migration streams might be asymmetric. On the one hand, an incoming migrant could increase the local diversity pool and therefore generate particularly large spillover effects. On the other hand, knowledge exchange is based on social networks. Assuming that incoming workers find comparable small networks at the beginning and outgoing workers leave comparable large networks, effects induced by brain gain might be smaller than effects generated by brain drain. The relative size is an empirical matter. We test these theoretical considerations with a large administrative German panel data set.
18 Project

Brain drain and brain gain: the global competition to attract highly skilled immigrants

Authors T. Boeri, H. Brücker, F. Docquier, ...
Year 2012
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19 Book

Network Approach versus Brain Drain: Lessons from the Diaspora

Authors Jean-Baptiste Meyer
Year 2001
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 179
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20 Journal Article

A Sociology of Diaspora Knowledge Networks

Authors Jean-Baptiste Meyer
Book Title The Migration-Development Nexus
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21 Book Chapter

Caring about 'brain drain' migration in a postcolonial world

Authors P Raghuram
Year 2009
Journal Name GEOFORUM
Citations (WoS) 53
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22 Journal Article

Italian Scientists Abroad in Europe's Scientific Research Scenario: High skill migration as a resource for development in Italy

Authors Stefano Sbalchiero, Arjuna Tuzzi
Year 2017
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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23 Journal Article

Brain drain and technological relationship between skilled and unskilled labor: brain gain or brain loss?

Authors Xiaofeng Fan, Akira Yakita
Year 2011
Journal Name JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 4
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24 Journal Article

Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Evidence on Brain Drain Grounding the Review of Albania’s and Bulgaria’s Experience1

Authors Nicholas P. Glytsos
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 5
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25 Journal Article

Brain Drain and Brain Gain: Rising Educational Segregation in the United States, 1940-2000

Authors Thurston Domina
Year 2006
Journal Name CITY & COMMUNITY
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26 Journal Article

Italian Scientists Abroad in Europe's Scientific Research Scenario: High skill migration as a resource for development in Italy

Authors Stefano Sbalchiero, Arjuna Tuzzi
Year 2017
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 1
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27 Journal Article

Skilled Immigrants in Rome

Authors M. Carolina Brandi
Year 2001
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 9
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28 Journal Article

Can Brain Drain Justify Immigration Restrictions?

Authors Kieran Oberman
Year 2013
Journal Name ETHICS
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29 Journal Article

Towards a Socio-Economics of the Brain Drain and Distributed Human Capital

Authors Carolina Canibano, Richard Woolley
Year 2015
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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30 Journal Article

International migration and the rainbow nation

Authors D Lucas, AY Amoateng, Kalule-Sabiti
Year 2006
Journal Name POPULATION SPACE AND PLACE
Citations (WoS) 9
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31 Journal Article

Transatlantic Roundtable on High-skilled Migration and Sending Countries Issues

Authors Said Ouaked
Year 2002
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 27
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32 Journal Article

The impact of brain drain in underserved countries: implementing a global ethical leadership approach

Authors Marie-Lyne Grenier
Year 2015
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MIGRATION HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
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33 Journal Article

Brain drain and brain gain in Europe - An evaluation of the East-European migration to Germany

Authors T Straubhaar, MR Wolburg
Year 1999
Journal Name JAHRBUCHER FUR NATIONALOKONOMIE UND STATISTIK
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34 Journal Article

Towards a Socio-Economics of the Brain Drain and Distributed Human Capital

Authors Carolina Canibano, Richard Woolley
Year 2015
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 12
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35 Journal Article

Comparative Analysis of Brain Drain, Brain Circulation and Brain Retain: A Case Study of Indian Institutes of Technology

Authors Roli Varma, Deepak Kapur
Year 2013
Journal Name JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE POLICY ANALYSIS
Citations (WoS) 6
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36 Journal Article

The impact of brain drain in underserved countries: implementing a global ethical leadership approach

Authors Marie-Lyne Grenier
Year 2015
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MIGRATION HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
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37 Journal Article

Brain circulation, diaspora and scientific progress: A study of the international migration of Chinese scientists, 1998-2006

Authors Tian Fangmeng
Year 2016
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
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38 Journal Article

Of Skilled Migration, Brain Drains and Policy Responses

Authors Ronald Skeldon
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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39 Journal Article

Brain circulation, diaspora and scientific progress: A study of the international migration of Chinese scientists, 1998-2006

Authors Tian Fangmeng
Year 2016
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
Citations (WoS) 3
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40 Journal Article

The IAB brain-drain data

Authors S. Capuano, Herbert Brücker, A. Marfouk
Year 1980
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Abstract
The IAB data collection on international migration has been carried out within the framework of the TEMPO project (TEmporary Migration, integration and the role of POlicies), a European project financed by NORFACE (New Opportunities for Research Funding Agency Co-operation in Europe), a partnership of 15 research councils established to increase cooperation in research and research policy in Europe. The project has the goal of extend the knowledge of the causes and consequences of international migration with particular focus on themes like temporary migration, migrants’ integration, and migration policies. The IAB has been in charge of building a macro-dataset on international migration to 20 OECD destination countries by gender, country of origin and educational level, for the years 1980-2010 (5 years intervals). The above data collection has been carried out in cooperation with Abdeslam Marfouk (ULB, Brussels).
41 Data Set

Brain drain, gain and circulation

Authors Zovanga Kone, Çağlar Özden
Year 2017
Book Title Handbook of Globalisation and Development
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42 Book Chapter

Contributing Factors to Migration Growth Among Iranian Students: Drivers of Migration to Malaysia

Authors Ali Kazemi, Abdolvahab Baghbanian, Mohammad Mahmoudi Maymand, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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43 Journal Article

The IAB brain-drain data

Year 1980
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Abstract
The IAB data collection on international migration has been carried out within the framework of the TEMPO project (TEmporary Migration, integration and the role of POlicies), a European project financed by NORFACE (New Opportunities for Research Funding Agency Co-operation in Europe), a partnership of 15 research councils established to increase cooperation in research and research policy in Europe. The project has the goal of extend the knowledge of the causes and consequences of international migration with particular focus on themes like temporary migration, migrants’ integration, and migration policies. The IAB has been in charge of building a macro-dataset on international migration to 20 OECD destination countries by gender, country of origin and educational level, for the years 1980-2010 (5 years intervals). The above data collection has been carried out in cooperation with Abdeslam Marfouk (ULB, Brussels).
44 Data Set

Documenting the Brain Drain of "La Creme de la Creme" Three Case-Studies on International Migration at the Upper Tail of the Education Distribution

Authors Frederic Docquier, Hillel Rapoport
Year 2009
Journal Name JAHRBUCHER FUR NATIONALOKONOMIE UND STATISTIK
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45 Journal Article

Contributing Factors to Migration Growth Among Iranian Students: Drivers of Migration to Malaysia

Authors Ali Kazemi, Abdolvahab Baghbanian, Mohammad Mahmoudi Maymand, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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46 Journal Article

The Brain Drain: Emigration and Return.

Year 1980
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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47 Journal Article

Asymmetric information and the brain drain

Authors Da-HsiangDonald Lien
Year 1993
Journal Name JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS
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48 Journal Article

Transnationality of Migrants: Enduring ties with the home country and integration in the host country

Year 2006
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Abstract
Donor: European Commission, 7th framework programme. Coordinator: Prof. Dr. Gianni Toniolo, Univerisität Tor Vergata, Rome. Partners: CEPR, FAO, Free University Brussels, HWWI, Katholic University Mailano, IAB, LSE, UCL, University Lille II, University Louvain-la-Neuf, University Riga, University Tor-Vergata Rome, University Turin, WTO Begin/end date: 2006-2010 The project is research and training network (RTN) which is funded by the 7th framework programme of the EU. The project tempts to connect excellent academic research with the exchange of young and experienced researchers across Europe. The project examines several aspects of transnational networks of migrants between sending and destination countries. The research of IAB focuses in the causes and consequences of the brain drain and brain gain in sending and destination countries and on the labour market effects of migration. About 40 researchers from 18 universities and other research centres participate in the project.
49 Project

Emigration of High-Skilled Individuals due to Short-Term Contracts

Year 2013
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Abstract
This proposal presents a study of the EXODUS of exceptionally gifted individuals due to the increased utilization of short-term contracts. The primary objective is to study the impact of Italian labour market reforms, specifically those related to the regulation and utilization of short-term employment contracts, on the departure of skilled workers towards other countries, which typically offer more and better opportunities (brain drain). Theoretically, the utilization of short-term contracts could help increase labor force participation, employment, efficiency and labour market opportunities. However, if not regulated in integration with the specific institutional framework, short-term contracts might generate undesired effects. By promoting adverse selection, driving the better workers away from the mother country as the less productive workers take up short-term contracts, short-term contracts might actually increase the brain drain. The purpose of EXODUS is to investigate the validity of these concerns and to analyze the way short-term contracts affect the brain drain phenomenon. In particular, EXODUS will focus on investigating the employment condition and behavioral choices of a specific category of workers: young individuals with a high level of education.
50 Project

The Brain Drain: Emigration and Return.

Year 1982
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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51 Journal Article

Adding insult to injury: the healthcare brain drain

Authors C. R. Hooper
Year 2008
Journal Name JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ETHICS
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52 Journal Article

Divided by class, connected by work: Class divisions among the new wave of Polish migrants in the UK

Authors Paulina Trevena
Year 2011
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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53 Journal Article

African Brain Drain and Its Impact on Source Countries: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know?

Authors Stella Capuano, Abdeslam Marfouk
Year 2013
Journal Name JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE POLICY ANALYSIS
Citations (WoS) 5
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54 Journal Article

Brain Drain and Brain Loss: Immigrants to Greece

Authors Theodore P. Lianos
Year 2007
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 7
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55 Journal Article

Brain Drain from Sri Lankan Universities

Authors Chandra Gunawardena, Rasika Nawaratne
Year 2017
Journal Name SRI LANKA JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
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56 Journal Article

Debating Brain Drain - May Governments Restrict Emigration?

Authors Christine Straehle
Year 2017
Journal Name Developing World Bioethics
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57 Journal Article

The New Economics of the Brain Drain

Authors O. Stark
Year 2005
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58 Working Paper

Is the medical brain drain beneficial? Evidence from overseas doctors in the UK

Authors Marl Kangasniemi, L. Alan Winters, Simon Commander
Year 2007
Journal Name SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
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59 Journal Article

Brain drain in the age of mass migration: Does relative inequality explain migrant selectivity?

Authors Yvonne Stolz, Joerg Baten
Year 2012
Journal Name EXPLORATIONS IN ECONOMIC HISTORY
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60 Journal Article

Brain Drain and Brain Gain: The Global Competition to Attract High-skilled Migrants / The Cultural Politics of Talent Migration in East Asia

Authors Daniel Jendrissek
Year 2014
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
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61 Journal Article

Debating Brain Drain: May Governments Restrict Emigration

Authors John A. Dick
Year 2016
Journal Name ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES
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62 Journal Article

Physician Brain Drain: Can Nothing Be Done?

Authors Nir Eyal, Samia Hurst
Year 2008
Journal Name PUBLIC HEALTH ETHICS
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63 Journal Article

Polish emigration and reemigration as an experience. Sociological and pedagogical aspect

Year 2011
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Abstract
For many years , Poland has been one of the largest sending areas in Central and Eastern Europe and a vast reservoir of labor for many countries in Western Europe and North America, when Poland officially became a member of the European Union in May 2004, only three EU Member States immediately opened their labor markets to nationals of Poland and the seven other Eastern European accession states: the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Sweden. By the end of 2006, Polish citizens could also freely work in Finland, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. My research are connected to teenagers and young people who are working abroad. I am wondering if they improve theirs life thanks to emigration works. What emigration means to them? Are they happy? How often the visit Poland, and family who is living in Poland? What kind of job are they doing? And is it connected to their education? Why the couldn’t find a job in Poland? Knowledge transfer between countries is very important think - on the other hand, the loss of the best and brightest participants in the work force to developed countries, commonly known as the “brain drain”, may have adverse effects on source economies. In view of circular migration, the resultant transfer of human capital and knowledge represents a “brain circulation” between the host country and the country of emigration. We can say that this is “brain waste” if it is about Polish, because Polish workers are working, for example in Ireland as a kitchen porters or housekeepers even if they are masters of economics or for example mathematics. In general research says that young Polish have new better life. They say that they finally haven’t financial problems. They are traveling around the world, meeting interesting places, people and cultures, and they can afford for everything. The financial, economic reasons are the most important for them, but on the other hand thanks to migration young polish migrants believe that world is not as bad as they were thinking, that they can more, and that their life is in theirs hands.
64 Project

Portrayals of Global Health Worker Migration in Canadian Print News Media: Domestic Concerns vs. Global Awareness

Authors Jen Pylypa
Year 2011
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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65 Journal Article

Debating Brain Drain: May Governments Restrict Emigration?

Authors Peter W. Higgins
Year 2016
Journal Name ETHICS
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66 Journal Article

International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain

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67 Book

Remittances Data. Migration and Remittances Data

Year 1970
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Abstract
Dataset on remittances data including incoming and outgoing flows, monthly remittances data of selected countries, and estimates of bilateral migration and medical ‘brain drain’ for over 200 countries. The factbook is published every 2 to 3 years.
68 Data Set

Comment on Brock and Blake: debating brain drain

Authors Phil Cole
Year 2017
Journal Name JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ETHICS
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69 Journal Article

Extending the Case for a Beneficial Brain Drain

Authors Simone Bertoli, Herbert Bruecker
Year 2011
Journal Name JAHRBUCHER FUR NATIONALOKONOMIE UND STATISTIK
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70 Journal Article

Return migration as a channel of brain drain

Authors K. Mayr, G. Peri
Year 2012
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72 Working Paper

India: ‘Brain Drain’ or the Migration of Talent?

Authors T. K. OOMMEN
Year 1989
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 17
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73 Journal Article

United States Immigration Laws and the Brain Drain

Authors THOMAS L. BERNARD
Year 1970
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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74 Journal Article

Return Migration After Brain Drain: A Simulation Approach

Authors Alessio Emanuele Biondo, Alessandro Pluchino, Andrea Rapisarda
Year 2013
Journal Name JASSS-THE JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL SOCIETIES AND SOCIAL SIMULATION
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75 Journal Article

'Garang's Seeds': Influences on the Return of Sudanese-Canadian Refugee Physicians to Post-Conflict South Sudan

Authors Juli L. . Finlay, Rodney A. Crutcher, Neil Drummond
Year 2011
Journal Name JOURNAL OF REFUGEE STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 4
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76 Journal Article

'Garang's Seeds': Influences on the Return of Sudanese-Canadian Refugee Physicians to Post-Conflict South Sudan

Authors Juli L. . Finlay, Rodney A. Crutcher, Neil M. Drummond
Year 2011
Journal Name JOURNAL OF REFUGEE STUDIES
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77 Journal Article

Textbox 1: Circular Migration as a Development Tool: The Mauritian Approach

Authors Anil K. Kokil, Ali Mansoor, Vivekanandsingh Joysuree
Book Title Global Perspectives on Migration and Development
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78 Book Chapter

Brain Drain from Turkey: Return Intentions of Skilled Migrants

Authors Nil Demet Gungor, Aysit Tansel
Year 2014
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 16
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80 Journal Article

Selective Migration for and ‘Brain Drain’ from Latin America

Authors G. BEIJER
Year 1966
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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81 Journal Article

Brain drain and economic growth: theory and evidence

Authors M. Beine, F. Docquier, H. Rapoport
Year 2001
Journal Name Journal of Development Economics
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82 Journal Article

Igbo professional migratory orders, hometown associations and ethnicity in the USA

Authors RACHEL REYNOLDS
Year 2009
Journal Name GLOBAL NETWORKS-A JOURNAL OF TRANSNATIONAL AFFAIRS
Citations (WoS) 4
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83 Journal Article

The reverse transfer of technology from sub-saharan Africa: The case of Zimbabwe

Authors BI Logan
Year 1999
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 7
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85 Journal Article

Returning to Malaysia?

Authors Sin Yee Koh
Book Title Race, Education, and Citizenship
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86 Book Chapter

Brain Drain from Turkey: Return Intentions of Skilled Migrants

Authors Nil Demet Gungor, Aysit Tansel
Year 2014
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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87 Journal Article

Modernization for Emigration: Determinants & Consequences of the Brain Drain

Authors A Portes, Adrienne Celaya
Year 2013
Journal Name DAEDALUS
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88 Journal Article

The economics of international migration: A short history of the debate

Authors TJ Hatton
Year 2014
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 12
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89 Journal Article

The reverse transfer of technology from sub-saharan Africa: The case of Zimbabwe

Authors BI Logan
Year 1999
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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90 Journal Article

TACKLING THE BRAIN DRAIN FROM ROMANIA'S HEALTH WORKFORCE PROBLEM ANALYSIS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

Authors Emilia Chiscop
Year 2013
Journal Name REVISTA ROMANA DE BIOETICA
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92 Journal Article

The economics of international migration: A short history of the debate

Authors TJ Hatton
Year 2014
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
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93 Journal Article

Exploring the asylum-migration nexus in the context of health professional migration

Authors Emma Stewart
Year 2008
Journal Name GEOFORUM
Citations (WoS) 8
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94 Journal Article

Brain drain: Do economic conditions "push" doctors out of developing countries?

Authors Edward N. Okeke
Year 2013
Journal Name SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
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95 Journal Article

Hidden gender dimensions of the brain drain: the case of Turkey

Authors Adem Yavuz Elveren, Gulay Toksoz
Year 2019
Journal Name NEW PERSPECTIVES ON TURKEY
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96 Journal Article

A 2ND-PHASE DIASPORA - SOUTH-AFRICAN MIGRATION TO AUSTRALIA

Authors SP RULE
Year 1994
Journal Name GEOFORUM
Citations (WoS) 10
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97 Journal Article

Does corruption promote emigration? An empirical examination

Authors Arusha Cooray, Friedrich Schneider
Year 2016
Journal Name JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 13
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98 Journal Article

Brain drain and human capital formation in developing countries: Winners and losers

Authors M. Beine, F. Docquier, H. Rapoport
Year 2008
Journal Name The Economic Journal
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99 Journal Article

The migration of knowledge workers: second-generation effects of India’s brain drain

Authors Manuel J Carvajal
Year 2002
Journal Name ECONOMICS OF EDUCATION REVIEW
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100 Journal Article
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