Citizenship, naturalisation and statelessness

Results displayed in this section refer to research on policies, laws, legislation, regulation or measures concerning citizenship, naturalisation and statelessness. It includes the rights and entitlement to citizenship and naturalisation, and the type of protection and rights provided to stateless migrants. Naturalisation means that a State grants nationality to a non-national through a formal procedure.

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Barrier to Naturalization Index (BNI)

Year 2002
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Abstract
The Barrier to Naturalization Index focuses specifically on the naturalization process and jus soli. It takes twelve requirements of the naturalization process into account: (1) good conduct, (2) willingness to integrate, (3) language skills, (4) dual nationality, (5) application complexity, (6) application fees, (7) state discretion in granting citizenship, (8) residency requirements, (9) jus sanguinis laws preventing jus soli naturalization of children, (10) jus sanguinis concerning children of parents born in country (double jus soli), (11) women allowed to maintain citizenship after marrying a foreigner, and (12) mothers when married to a foreigner being able to transfer citizenship to their children. It purposely excludes entry requirements, unemployment, and other variables. Data were taken from the naturalization laws of each country and reports from foreign country consulates in the United States. For the index, components were grouped into four categories with a weighing scheme. The total index was constructed as a percentage of the maximum score of the highest-scoring country, so it varied from 0 to 1.
1 Data Set

The changing definition of China in middle school history textbooks

Authors Zhaojin Lu
Year 2017
Journal Name NATIONS AND NATIONALISM
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2 Journal Article

Citizenship Policy Index (CPI)

Year 2008
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Abstract
The Citizenship Policy Index (CPI) addresses policies for citizenship acquisition for the EU15 member states (for years 1980 and 2008), and other 10 EU member states entered in 2004 (for 2004). CPI consists of the simple aggregation of three factors: whether or not a country grants jus soli, the minimum length of residency requirement for naturalization; whether or not naturalised immigrants are allowed to hold dual citizenship. It also takes into account language and civic integration requirements that a number of countries have mandated as a condition for naturalization. Each component is scored on a 0-2 scale, yielding a 0-6-point range for the total index. CPI draws on in-depth research by individual country experts, within a common methodological framework. CPI allows for distinguishing between three groups of countries, depending on whether their citizenship policies can be characterised as ‘restrictive’ (scores between 0 and 1.5), ‘medium’ (over 1.5 but less than 4) or ‘liberal’ (4 and above).
3 Data Set

Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness Index (CITRIX)

Year 2014
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Abstract
This the Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness Index (CITRIX) mainly builds on selected and partly modified indicators of the Migration and Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) strand on the Access to Nationality. It also uses the citizenship indicators of Fitzgerald et al. (2014) as well as the resources offered by DEMIG and GLOBALCIT as further cornerstones for data collection. Covering a total of 23 OECD countries from 1980 to 2014 (805 country-year observations), CITRIX zooms in on four fundamental components of citizenship regimes relating to the acquisition of nationality by immigrants and their children: (1) the residence duration requirement for ordinary naturalization; (2) the toleration of dual citizenship in naturalization; (3) further naturalization requirements, namely language and citizenship tests as well as economic and criminal record condition; and (4) the strength of jus soli.
4 Data Set

Immigrant Inclusion Index (IMIX)

Year 2010
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Abstract
Immigrant Inclusion Index (IMIX) is a quantitative tool for measuring the electoral inclusion of immigrants in 20 EU member states for 2010. The index includes both de jure (outputs) and de facto (outcomes) indicators. The jure strand assesses the laws regulating the immigrants’ access to citizenship and alien voting rights. Therefore, under de jure indicators, access to citizenship (ius soli, naturalization, and toleration of multiple citizenship for immigrants) and alien enfranchisement (active suffrage for non-citizen residents in legislative and presidential elections, and referend – national and local level) are included. De jure indicators are drawn from EUDO Citizenship Law Indicators. Within the de facto dimension the authors measure the citizenship rate, the naturalization rate, and the alien enfranchisement rate. Data are harmonized and the measurement level is ordinal and ranges from 0 (theoretical minimum) to 100 (theoretical maximum). To aggregate the components in the respective dimensions, they applied the arithmetic mean. Finally, the authors aggregated the de jure and the de facto dimension by applying the geometric mean.
5 Data Set

Global Citizenship Law: International Migration and Constitutional Identity

Year 2017
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Abstract
'Managing global migration is one of the most pressing issues of our time, particularly in Europe. With more than 230 million international immigrants, the manner in which new citizens are/should be 'created' has become a controversial issue, morally and politically. Traditionally, international law has not regulated nationality law; naturalization requirements remain the last stronghold of national sovereignty. This project advances the establishment of a new subfield in public international law—International Citizenship Law (ICIL)—which would regulate nationality law. It asks a critical and timely question: what are/should be the international legal limitations/privileges imposed on/granted to states in setting naturalization requirements? In order to address this question, the project has five scientific objectives: [1] to investigate the history of the law of naturalization in international law and what it can teach us about 21th-century challenges; [2] to identify the most recent legal developments in the field of naturalization law and establish the most up-to-date international legal standards of naturalization law; [3] to set out the theoretical foundations and the justifications for the establishment of ICIL; [4] to analyze the normative and structural implications derived from an-ICIL approach for future citizenship policy development, as well as to identify the legal reforms that should be taken to promote an-ICIL approach; and [5] to explore the interrelationship between ICIL, immigration policy, and constitutional identity. In essence, the project seeks to formulate international legal standards by which states can admit immigrants without fundamentally changing their cultural heritage and slipping into extreme nationalism. The outcome can serve as a basis for a future reform in international law, EU law, and national legal systems. As the immigration debate reaches a decisive moment, this project has both theoretical significance and policy implications'
6 Project

Historical Overview: Patterns of Immigration, Immigration and Citizenship Policies

Authors Pontus Odmalm
Book Title Migration Policies and Political Participation
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7 Book Chapter

Dimensions of Citizenship Policy in the Post-Yugoslav Space: Divergent Paths

Authors Jelena Džankić
Year 2017
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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8 Journal Article

GlobalCitizenshipLaw: Global Citizenship Law: International Migration and Constitutional Identity

Year 2017
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Abstract
Managing global migration is one of the most pressing issues of our time, particularly in Europe. With more than 230 million international immigrants, the manner in which new citizens are/should be "created" has become a controversial issue, morally and politically. Traditionally, international law has not regulated nationality law; naturalization requirements remain the last stronghold of national sovereignty. This project advances the establishment of a new subfield in public international law—International Citizenship Law (ICIL)—which would regulate nationality law. It asks a critical and timely question: what are/should be the international legal limitations/privileges imposed on/granted to states in setting naturalization requirements? In order to address this question, the project has five scientific objectives: [1] to investigate the history of the law of naturalization in international law and what it can teach us about 21th-century challenges; [2] to identify the most recent legal developments in the field of naturalization law and establish the most up-to-date international legal standards of naturalization law; [3] to set out the theoretical foundations and the justifications for the establishment of ICIL; [4] to analyze the normative and structural implications derived from an-ICIL approach for future citizenship policy development, as well as to identify the legal reforms that should be taken to promote an-ICIL approach; and [5] to explore the interrelationship between ICIL, immigration policy, and constitutional identity. In essence, the project seeks to formulate international legal standards by which states can admit immigrants without fundamentally changing their cultural heritage and slipping into extreme nationalism. The outcome can serve as a basis for a future reform in international law, EU law, and national legal systems. As the immigration debate reaches a decisive moment, this project has both theoretical significance and policy implications
9 Project

Citizenship Implementation indicators (CITIMP)

Year 2012
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Abstract
EUDO Citizenship Implementation Indicators measure on a 0 to 1 scale the formal aspects of naturalisation procedures: promotion activities, documentation requirements, administrative discretion, bureaucratic procedures, and review and appeal options. CITIMP indicators allow for comparisons of the specific steps in the procedure across countries. CITIMP indicators have been calculated for 35 European states, as well as for three German federal provinces. CITIMP indicators are an output of the research project 'Access to Citizenship and its Impact on Immigrant Integration (ACIT). = The project was financially supported by the European Fund for the Integration of Third Country Nationals, administered by DG Home Affairs. CITIMP indicators were computed on the grounds of self-collected information: questionnaires on implementation of citizenship policies were filled out by country experts.
10 Data Set

Can youth with a migrant background speak? Representation, citizenship and voice in Italian TV and press journalism

Authors Djordje Sredanovic, Filomena Gaia Farina
Year 2015
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERCULTURAL STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 2
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11 Journal Article

The ecology of immigrant naturalisation: a life course approach in the context of institutional conditions

Authors Floris Peters, H Schmeets, Maarten P. Vink
Year 2016
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 11
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12 Journal Article

Deserving citizenship? Exploring migrants' experiences of the 'citizenship test' process in the United Kingdom

Authors Pierre Monforte, Leah Bassel, Kamran Khan
Year 2019
Journal Name BRITISH JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY
Citations (WoS) 3
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13 Journal Article

Access to Citizenship and the Role of Origin Countries

Authors Tijana Prokic-Breuer, Maarten Peter Vink, Jaap Dronkers
Book Title Migrant Integration Between Homeland and Host Society Volume 1
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14 Book Chapter

Seeking Safety beyond Refuge: The Impact of Immigration and Citizenship Policy upon Refugees in the UK

Authors Emma Stewart, Gareth Mulvey
Year 2014
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 19
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15 Journal Article

Citizenship law indicators (CITLAW)

Year 2016
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Abstract
CITLAW indicators address citizenship laws (acquisition and loss of citizenship) in Europe. Basic indicator scores are calculated on the basis of a list of substantive and procedural requirements for each mode of acquisition or loss using both additive and weighting formulas. CITLAW indicators are also aggregated at different levels in order to analyse more general features of citizenship laws. The 6 highest level CITLAW indicators that are calculated using all 45 basic indicators are: ius sanguinis, ius soli, residence-based ordinary naturalisation, naturalisation on specific grounds, voluntary renunciation and withdrawal/lapse. CITLAW indicators have been calculated for 42 European states for 2011 and 2016. Coding of CITLAW indicators is based on an assessment of legal provisions in national citizenship laws.
16 Data Set

Blood ties: migrations, state transnationalism and automatic nationality

Authors Sergio Caggiano
Year 2018
Journal Name ETHNIC AND RACIAL STUDIES
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17 Journal Article

Immigration Trends and Policy Changes in Taiwan

Authors Hong-Zen Wang
Year 2011
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
Citations (WoS) 7
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18 Journal Article

Untangling liberal democracy from territoriality: from ethnic/civic to ethnic/territorial nationalism

Authors Maxim Tabachnik
Year 2019
Journal Name NATIONS AND NATIONALISM
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19 Journal Article

Dumbrava’s Citizenship Policy Index

Year 2009
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Abstract
Dumbrava’s Citizenship Policy Index, which builds on Howard,s citizenship policy index, analyses the citizenship regulations (citizenship laws and additional relevant legislation) in sixteen postcommunist countries in two periods of time (in the 1990s and 2000s). The index focuses on theregulations regarding the acquisition of citizenship- at birth (ius soli, ius sanguinis and overlapping) and through regular naturalization (without facilitations). In discussing the naturalization rules, a numeric scale has been designed to measure the “restrictive”-ness of citizenship rules (0-20). In order to measure the restrictiveness of the naturalization regulations, the present codification took into consideration five categories of requirements: residence (4 points), integration language and society/constitution (2+2 points), personal record criminal and political (2+2 points), loyalty- dual citizenship and oath of allegiance (3+1 points) and welfare income and medical situation (2+2 points). The index represents the sum of the indicators.
20 Data Set

Foreign nationals, enemy penology and the criminal justice system

Authors Liz Fekete, Frances Webber
Year 2010
Journal Name RACE & CLASS
Citations (WoS) 26
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21 Journal Article

Index of fees and economic requirements for naturalization (overall ECN index)

Year 2014
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Abstract
The index addresses the economic requirements and the costs (fees) for naturalization. The index is composed by two sub-indexes index of economic requirements for naturalisation (ERN index) and index of naturalisation fees (fee index), which are combined by calculating the mean of the two indexes. ERN Index. Economic resources as a requirement for naturalisation may take three principal forms: the requirement to participate in the formal economy, to have an income, or not to draw certain welfare benefts In order to measure the relative strength of these requirements, six indicators on their legal format, thresholds, duration and exemptions are combined into an index ranging from 0 (no requirement) to 100 (most difficult requirement). These six indicators vary over time and across countries and can give a meaningful account of differences in economic requirements for naturalisation. Each indicator measuring the strength of economic requirements has three coding options. The index score for each observation (country_year) is measured by taking the mean of the six indicators. Fee Index. Fees may constitute an economic obstacle for accessing citizenship. For the purpose of investigating costs in the naturalisation process over longer periods and across countries, only general expenses in the naturalisation process, which are independent from an applicant’s individual condition, can be considered. These expenses are measured with five indicators, which are subsequently summarised to a weighted index, in which the total fees make up 70%, language skill certificates and exemptions/reductions for the second generation 10%, and exemptions/reductions for spouses and kin-citizens 5% of the index
22 Data Set

Catalyst or Crown: Does Naturalization Promote the Long-Term Social Integration of Immigrants?

Authors Jens Hainmueller, Dominik Hangartner, Giuseppe Pietrantuono
Year 2017
Journal Name AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 22
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24 Journal Article

The ethno-demographic impact of co-ethnic citizenship in Central and Eastern Europe

Authors Costica Dumbrava
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 5
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25 Journal Article

Citizenship policies in interwar Turkey*

Authors Soner Cagaptay
Year 2003
Journal Name NATIONS AND NATIONALISM
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26 Journal Article

Passing the Test? From Immigrant to Citizen in a Multicultural Country

Authors Elke Winter
Year 2018
Journal Name SOCIAL INCLUSION
Citations (WoS) 1
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27 Journal Article

Models of Citizenship and Rules of Naturalisation

Authors Rainer Bauböck
Book Title Challenging Racism in Britain and Germany
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28 Book Chapter

What's the big deal? Naturalisation and the politics of desire

Authors Anne-Marie Fortier
Year 2013
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 22
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29 Journal Article

Citizenship in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland: Courts, legislatures, and administrators

Authors Claus Hofhansel
Year 2008
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 9
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30 Journal Article

Citizenship on paper or at heart? a closer look into the dual citizenship debate in Europe

Authors Zeynep Yanasmayan
Year 2015
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 6
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31 Journal Article

Rights and controls in the management of migration: the case of Germany

Authors L Morris
Year 2000
Journal Name SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 9
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32 Journal Article

Trading Citizenship, Human Capital and the European Union

Authors David Owen
Book Title Debating Transformations of National Citizenship
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33 Book Chapter

'National' citizenship in the UK? Education and naturalization policies in the context of internal division

Authors Dina Kiwan
Year 2011
Journal Name ETHNICITIES
Citations (WoS) 8
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34 Journal Article

Dual Citizenship and Political Participation: Migrants in the Interplay of United States and Colombian Politics

Authors Cristina Escobar
Year 2004
Journal Name LATINO STUDIES
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35 Journal Article

Fetal citizens? Birthright citizenship, reproductive futurism, and the "panic" over Chinese birth tourism in southern California

Authors Sean H. Wang
Year 2017
Journal Name ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING D-SOCIETY & SPACE
Citations (WoS) 5
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36 Journal Article

Naturalization policy index

Year 2009
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Abstract
The index analyses naturalization policies in twenty-six Western immigrant-receiving democracies in order to show how different countries deal with newcomers (year of reference: 2009). The index looks at five aspects of a country’s citizenship and naturalization policies. First, it considers whether a country grants automatic citizenship only to children of citizens (ius sanguinis) or only to those who are born within the country’s border (ius soli). Second, every naturalization policy stipulates that immigrants have to have lived at least a certain number of years within the borders of the country before they can apply for citizenship. Third, it looks at whether passing a language test is part of the naturalization requirements. These tests vary significantly in difficulty. Fourth, in some countries immigrants cannot be naturalized without passing a citizenship test, while in other countries such a test does not exist. Moreover, these tests vary in nature. Fifth, and finally, it includes whether immigrants are required to give up their former nationality or nationalities before they can become citizens. These five scores are combined in an index that ranges from 0 to 15. Overall, this summary score should give a valid indication of the exclusiveness, or ‘ethnicness’, of a country’s naturalization policy.
37 Data Set

Cash-for-Passports and the End of Citizenship

Authors Peter J. Spiro
Book Title Debating Transformations of National Citizenship
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38 Book Chapter

Making political citizens? Migrants' narratives of naturalization in the United Kingdom

Authors Leah Bassel, Pierre Monforte, Kamran Khan
Year 2018
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 3
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39 Journal Article

Naturalization and employment integration of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands

Authors Pieter Bevelander, Justus Veenman
Year 2006
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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40 Journal Article

A Post-Colonial Bouillabaisse: Africans in France — Context and Theory

Authors Loretta E. Bass
Book Title African Immigrant Families in Another France
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41 Book Chapter

State-assisted Highly Skilled Return Programmes, National Identity and the Risk(s) of Homecoming: Israel and Germany Compared

Authors Nir Cohen, Dani Kranz
Year 2015
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 5
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42 Journal Article

Political and social rights for second country nationals: freedom of movement and citizenship in Australasia

Authors Kate McMillan
Year 2014
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 6
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43 Journal Article

The new German citizenship law and its impact on German demographics: research notes

Authors Merih Anil
Year 2007
Journal Name POPULATION RESEARCH AND POLICY REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 3
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44 Journal Article

What Is Wrong with Selling Citizenship? It Corrupts Democracy!

Authors Rainer Bauböck
Book Title Debating Transformations of National Citizenship
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46 Book Chapter

Beyond Appearances: Citizenship Tests in Canada and the UK

Authors Mireille Paquet
Year 2012
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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47 Journal Article

Framing the citizenship regime within the complex triadic nexuses: the case study of Croatia

Authors Viktor Koska
Year 2012
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 10
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48 Journal Article

Mobile Union Citizens Should Have Portable Voting Rights Within the EU

Authors Roxana Barbulescu
Book Title Debating European Citizenship
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49 Book Chapter

Reform, Counter-Reform and the Politics of Citizenship: Local Voting Rights for Third-Country Nationals in Greece

Authors Anna Triandafyllidou
Year 2015
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
Citations (WoS) 3
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50 Journal Article

The Effects of an EU Member-State’s Modified Citizenship Law: The Hungarian Example, With a Particular Focus on the Aspects of Free Movement

Authors Ágnes Töttős
Year 2017
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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51 Journal Article

Migrant Life Course and Legal Status Transition

Year 2016
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Abstract
When does citizenship provide a boost to migrant integration? A fast-track to citizenship can maximise the potential for settlement success, though too short a pathway can disincentivise integration. Not all migrants have an equal interest in naturalising and some are discouraged by restrictive policies. Yet little is known about why, how and for whom legal status transition matters and, especially, how policy variation impacts on this relation. Which migrants are most discouraged by stricter requirements for naturalisation? For whom carries citizenship the largest pay-off? Does it still matter if a migrant acquires citizenship after a long waiting period? This project combines for the first time the ideas that a) migrants have different motivations to naturalise; b) legal status transitions are conditioned by the institutional and socioeconomic contexts in origin and destination countries and c) the potential ‘integration premium’ associated with naturalisation is conditioned by the trajectory into citizenship. The innovative project contributions are: 1. modelling migrants’ legal status transitions as life course events, which are shaped by migrants’ origin, their family context and societal structures and institutions; 2. analysing the relevance of citizenship for work and income, living conditions, health status and out-migration among immigrants and for educational attainment among their descendants; 3. developing novel methodologies to analyse step-to-citizenship trajectories and the impact of policy changes on status transitions and related outcomes among migrant groups and cohorts; 4. testing models on the basis of a unique combination of longitudinal register-based and survey-based micro-data in 8 European and North American countries, which provide the comparative context to analyse the impact of institutional variation; 5. yielding information for targeted citizenship policies to maximise settlement success for immigrants and their children.
52 Project

The resilience of citizenship traditions: Civic integration in Germany, Great Britain and Denmark

Authors Per Mouritsen
Year 2013
Journal Name ETHNICITIES
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53 Journal Article

All Under One Roof: Mixed-Status Families in an Era of Reform1

Year 2006
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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54 Journal Article

Citizenship rights and repatriation of refugees

Authors G Kibreab
Year 2003
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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55 Journal Article

Required to assimilate? The content of citizenship tests in five countries

Authors Ines Michalowski
Year 2011
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 35
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56 Journal Article

Access to Citizenship for Aliens in the Netherlands

Authors Gerard-René de Groot
Book Title Citizenship in a Global World
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57 Book Chapter

The grey area between nationality and citizenship: an analysis of external citizenship policies in Latin America and the Caribbean

Authors Luicy Pedroza, Pau Palop-Garcia
Year 2017
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 1
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58 Journal Article

Citizenship Rights and Repatriation of Refugees

Year 2006
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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59 Journal Article

Migration and Citizenship Law in Spain: Path-dependency and Policy Change in a Recent Country of Immigration

Authors Alberto Martin-Perez, Francisco Javier Moreno-Fuentes
Year 2012
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 13
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60 Journal Article

Liberalism and Citizenship Acquisition: How Easy Should Naturalisation Be?

Authors James Hampshire
Year 2011
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 6
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61 Journal Article

NATAC: The acquisition of nationality in EU Member states: rules, practices and quantitative developments

Year 2004
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Abstract
The project will provide a comprehensive comparison of rules regulating the acquisition and loss of nationality in the EU Member States. This will be achieved by collecting information about current legislation and the development of nationality law since 1985, by analysing statistical data on naturalization, acquisition of nationality at birth, and loss or renunciation of nationality, and by investigating administrative practices in the implementation of nationality laws. The project will also examine statuses of quasi-citizenship for third country nationals that are granted in several Member States on the basis of long-term residence or to nationals of certain countries or ethnic background. Apart from providing country reports on these questions the project's main goal is to develop a systematic frame for comparing specific aspects in the regulation of nationality and citizenship across countries. The goal is to find out in which areas there are trends of long-term convergence or persistent divergence between Member States. This will serve as the basis for a broad evaluation of Member States policies in this area and for policy recommendations addressed to both Member State governments and the EU. The main focus for the evaluative part will be on the question how policies concerning the access to citizenship and nationality contribute to or hinder the integration of immigrants. Special emphasis will be laid on dual nationality and the assessment of the impact of recent policy changes towards broader toleration or restrictions in this matter.
62 Project

Citizenship for Those who Invest into the Future of the State is Not Wrong, the Price Is the Problem

Authors Magni-Berton Raul
Book Title Debating Transformations of National Citizenship
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63 Book Chapter

Politics and Group Belonging: Predictors of Naturalisation Behaviour in France

Authors Dani Carrillo
Year 2015
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 3
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64 Journal Article

Host Culture Adoption and Ethnic Retention among Turkish Immigrants and their Descendants in France, Germany, and the Netherlands

Year 2004
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Abstract
"Theoretical background and objectives The project contributes to societal and scientific debate by examining the relationship between integration policies and the socio-cultural integration of immigrants in three European countries that have pursued contrasting integration policies: France, Germany and the Netherlands. Socio-cultural integration is treated as a two-dimensional concept consisting of the degree of host culture adoption and the degree of ethnic retention. Following Berry (1997) these two dimensions are seen as – at least potentially – independent. Both dimensions are measured on the basis of four indicators. The degree of host culture adoption is measured as identification with the host country, host country language proficiency, host country language usage and social contacts with natives. The degree of ethnic retention is measured as identification with Turks, Turkish language proficiency, identification with Muslims and the observance of Islamic religious rules (halal diet, participation in Ramadan, mosque visits and headscarf wearing). The project tests several theories of immigrant assimilation in a cross-national perspective: theories em­phasis­ing material costs and benefits of retention and adoption, which claim that assimilation pressures will lead to adoption of the host culture and multicultural policies will promote ethnic retention; acculturative stress theories that pose that adoption is less likely to occur if it is seen as requiring the rejection of the culture of origin; and reactive ethnicity theories, which assume that immigrants withdraw in their ethnic cultures if they face assimilation pressures. In addition, the project pays special attention to naturalisation policies: Based on the widespread assumption that easily accessible citizenship promotes socio-cultural integration, two hypotheses are tested. First, whether naturalised immigrants display higher levels of socio-cultural integration than non-naturalised immigrants. Second, whether immigrants in countries with few preconditions for naturalisation show higher levels of socio-cultural integration. Research design, data and methodology Most previous comparative studies have not been able to control sufficiently for compositional effects related to the timing of immigration and the national and regional composition of immigrant populations. By choosing a quasi-experimental design, the project sought to eliminate such composition effects as far as possible. Therefore, original data were collected based on a telephone survey in the three countries that targeted a selected group of Turkish immigrants and their direct offspring originating in two rural regions of Turkey, who migrated before 1975. Thus, the sample (n = 1 000) excludes all follow-up migration of Turkish refugees and marriage migrants, which occurred to varying degrees in the three countries, and ensures that we are comparing similar immigrants in the three countries, and not predominantly urban Turkish guest workers from Istanbul in one country to Kurdish refugees in another country. All respondents had the option to answer the questionnaire either in Turkish or in their host-country language. The survey data were analysed using multivariate regression techniques, and took into account a range of individual-level control variables as well as the local density of the Turkish immigrant population. The quantitative findings were corroborated and refined with almost 90 additional in-depth interviews. Findings Results show that ethnic retention is strongest in the Netherlands, where multicultural policies were long prevalent, while host culture adoption is strongest in the French context, which has more strongly emphasised assimilation, at least where participation in the public realm is concerned. On the individual level, there is a negative relationship between ethnic retention and host culture adoption, which persists after controlling for relevant background variables. Naturalisation is positively associated with socio-cultural integration only in those countries—France and Germany—that have traditionally required a certain degree of cultural assimilation from their new citizens. Regarding country differences, the analyses reveal that Turkish immigrants in France show higher levels of host culture adoption on all four indicators. For host-country identification, they share this position with Dutch Turks. Taken together, these results provide no support for reactive ethnicity theories, as ethnic retention was strongest in the Netherlands, where citizenship policies have been most inclusive. They do provide support for a combination of material cost/benefit perspectives and acculturative stress perspectives, as neither a lack of incentives for adoption of the host culture (as was long the case in the Netherlands) nor very restrictive citizenship policies that promote an ethnically thick conception of citizenship (as long prevalent in Germany) have been successful in seducing immigrants to adopt the host culture. The results show that limited cultural assimilation conditions tied to an otherwise inclusive notion of citizenship (as in France) may be more helpful in promoting socio-cultural integration, but they also demonstrate that the allowance of dual nationality does not have the negative effects that are sometimes ascribed to it."
65 Project

Immigration, social cohesion, and naturalization

Authors Sune Laegaard
Year 2010
Journal Name ETHNICITIES
Citations (WoS) 12
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66 Journal Article

Anticipating the citizenship premium: before and after effects of immigrant naturalisation on employment

Authors Floris Peters, H Schmeets, Maarten P. Vink
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 1
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67 Journal Article

Linking Citizenship to Income Undermines European Values. We Need Shared Criteria and Guidelines for Access to EU Citizenship

Authors Hannes Swoboda
Book Title Debating Transformations of National Citizenship
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68 Book Chapter

Tu Casa, Mi Casa: Naturalization and Belonging among Latino Immigrants

Authors Maria Abascal
Year 2017
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 3
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69 Journal Article

Making Sense of Naturalization: What Citizenship Means to Naturalizing Immigrants in Canada and the USA

Authors Sofya Aptekar
Year 2016
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
Citations (WoS) 4
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70 Journal Article

Naturalisation policies beyond a Western focus

Authors Tobias Schwarz
Year 2016
Journal Name MIGRATION LETTERS
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71 Journal Article

Political Participation and Naturalisation: A Common Agenda

Authors Thomas Huddleston
Year 2014
Journal Name Forschungsjournal Soziale Bewegungen
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72 Journal Article

The effect of naturalization on wage growth: A panel study of young male immigrants

Authors B Bratsberg, JF Ragan, ZM Nasir
Year 2002
Journal Name JOURNAL OF LABOR ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 84
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73 Journal Article

SOCIAL CONTACT, SOCIAL CAPITAL, AND THE NATURALIZATION PROCESS - EVIDENCE FROM 6 IMMIGRANT GROUPS

Authors Z LIANG
Year 1994
Journal Name SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
Citations (WoS) 46
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74 Journal Article

Does Naturalization Facilitate Integration?

Authors Patrick Fick
Year 2016
Journal Name Zeitschrift für Soziologie
Citations (WoS) 3
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75 Journal Article

CASE STUDY Transiting into the Singaporean identity: Immigration and naturalisation policy

Authors Mathews Mathew, Debbie Soon
Year 2016
Journal Name MIGRATION LETTERS
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76 Journal Article

Integration and Naturalisation Tests, The New Way to European Citizenship

Year 2010
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Abstract
The INTEC project entails research on integration and naturalisation tests, coordinated in 2010 by the Dutch Centre for Migration Law (Radboud University), financed by the European Integration Fund. The research has resulted in nine country reports and one comparative report on the policies, practice and data regarding the integration requirements in nine EU Member States. Language and integration tests as a condition for naturalisation and various types of legal residence permits are topical issues in several EU Member States.
77 Project

Citizenship Policies in the New Europe

Authors Bernhard Perchinig, Rainer Bauböck, Wiebke Sievers
Year 2009
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78 Book

A ticket to mobility? Naturalisation and subsequent migration of refugees after obtaining asylum in the Netherlands

Authors Marloes de Hoon, Maarten Vink, Hans Schmeets
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
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79 Journal Article

Naturalization of Immigrants: Obstacles and Opportunities in German Municipalities

Year 2015
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Abstract
"In this project we examine the obstacles and opportunities immigrants may face when seeking naturalization with an empirical focus on German municipalities. Naturalization can be a deeply personal moment for many migrants, fostering national identification and attachment. There is also evidence that naturalization improves integration outcomes in the political realm. Though non-citizens have access to many of the same rights as do citizens, citizenship continues to signify full membership in a political community. Yet, even though more and more immigrants in Europe are eligible for citizenship, they might not apply because the bureaucratic hurdles can appear daunting, and state authorities may seem inaccessible. Our project examines the barriers to – and facilitators of – citizenship in German municipalities. In addition to examining administrative and political hurdles, our project considers psychological factors such as how immigrants are perceived by citizens and how decisions that have consequences for immigrants seeking naturalization are made in the realm of local politics. Methodologically, we use a combination of experimental, survey and qualitative methods."
80 Project

Cultural logics of belonging and movement Transnationalism, naturalization, and U.S. immigration politics

Authors Susan Bibler Coutin
Year 2003
Journal Name American Ethnologist
Citations (WoS) 45
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81 Journal Article

Naturalization and employment of immigrants in France (1968-1999)

Authors D Fougere, Mirna Safi
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANPOWER
Citations (WoS) 25
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82 Journal Article

Timing of Naturalization Among US Immigrants

Authors Eva Dziadula
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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83 Journal Article

The Politics of Syrian Refugees in Turkey: A Question of Inclusion and Exclusion through Citizenship

Authors Sebnem Koser Akcapar, Dogus Simsek
Year 2018
Journal Name SOCIAL INCLUSION
Citations (WoS) 2
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84 Journal Article

EXPLAINING IMMIGRANT NATURALIZATION

Authors PQ Yang
Year 1994
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 113
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85 Journal Article

Culture or taxes? The conceptions of citizenship of migrants and local factory workers in Italy

Authors Djordje Sredanovic
Year 2014
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 6
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86 Journal Article

The difference that empire makes: institutions and politics of citizenship in Germany and Austria

Authors Thomas Janoski
Year 2009
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 5
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87 Journal Article

Welfare Reform and Elderly Immigrants' Naturalization: Access to Public Benefits as an Incentive for Naturalization in the United States

Authors Y Nam, Wooksoo Kim
Year 2012
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 2
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88 Journal Article

Naturalization proclivities, ethnicity and integration

Authors KF Zimmermann, Amelie Constant, Liliya Gataullina
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANPOWER
Citations (WoS) 15
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89 Journal Article

Naturalization ceremonies and the role of immigrants in the American nation

Authors Sofya Aptekar
Year 2012
Journal Name CITIZENSHIP STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 6
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90 Journal Article

The Limits of Local Citizenship Policies in Japan

Authors Hideki Tarumoto
Book Title International Migrations and Local Governance
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91 Book Chapter

Under two flags: Dual nationality in Latin America and its consequences for naturalization in the United States

Authors M Jones-Correa
Year 2001
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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92 Journal Article

Global Mobility Corridors for the Ultra-Rich. The Neoliberal Transformation of Citizenship

Authors Roxana Barbulescu
Book Title Debating Transformations of National Citizenship
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93 Book Chapter

Media Discussion on the Naturalization Policy for Syrians in Turkey

Authors Reyhan Atasu-Topcuoglu
Year 2019
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 2
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94 Journal Article

Rights or identity? Naturalization processes among "Labor migrants" in Germany

Authors C Diehl, M Blohm
Year 2003
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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95 Journal Article

Diaspora Policies

Year 2013
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Abstract
The Diaspora Policies dataset focuses on thirty-five states characterized in terms of their symbolic policies, social and economic policies, religious and cultural policies, citizenship policies and government and bureaucratic control, coded in nineteen categorical variables. The dataset includes features of diaspora policies. The dataset is composed of 19 indicators, regrouped in five headings: symbolic policies, social and economic policies, religious and cultural policies, citizenship policies and government and bureaucratic control. Data for these variables has been collected from a variety of secondary sources, as well as primary sources from states, international organizations and diaspora organizations
96 Data Set

New citizens - New voters? Political preferences and voting intentions of naturalized Germans: A case study in progress

Authors AM Wust
Year 2000
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 11
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97 Journal Article

Chicano Indianism: a historical account of racial repression in the United States

Authors MARTHA MENCHACA
Year 1993
Journal Name American Ethnologist
Citations (WoS) 34
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98 Journal Article

Immigration and Naturalization Laws: Today's Need for Naturalization Law Reform

Year 1971
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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99 Journal Article

The North American naturalization gap: An institutional approach to citizenship acquisition in the United States and Canada

Authors Bloemraad
Year 2002
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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100 Journal Article
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